Floor Surface

Floor Pavement SlopesPendulum Test Value (PTV
Dry areas indoor
Level surfaceBetween 15 and 35
Inclined surfaces with slopes less than 5%Between 15 and 35
Inclined surfaces with 5% slopes or greater
Wet areas and outdoor
Level surfaceBetween 35 and 45
Inclined surfaces with slopes less than 5%Between 35 and 45
Inclined surfaces with 5% slopes or greater45 or more
Streets pavement, swimming pools and showers45 or more

Floor Surfaces

Slip resistance is a requirement in making pavements and surfaces accessible.

Paving in accessible paths shall meet the following conditions:

  1. Levels of slip resistance have to fulfil then requirements outlined in table above.
  2. Pendulum Test Value (PTV) should to be calculated using the pendulum technique. The above table shows slip resistance values for accessible pedestrian walking.
  3. Pavement surfaces shall be firm, smooth, stable, and slip resistant.
  4. Tiles presenting rounded edges and excessive joints shall be avoided in accessible paths to prevent wheel vibration, tripping and noise.
  5. The ground pavement cannot have loose elements and must allow for movement or
    dragging.
  6. Rugs and carpets shall be firmly fixed to the floor and shall allow easy movement for wheelchair users.
  7. Floor pavement shall not produce glare.
  8. The pavement shall present reflectance contrast with the surrounding pavement of at least 30 points LRV (Light Reflectance Value), or by an easily perceptible (by then foot or the cane) texture difference. These pavements can present less contrast if they are separated by a pavement strip of at least 300 mm presenting the required
    contrast or by an easily perceptible texture difference.
  9. Lighting installed in floors is not permitted if it produces glare in the area of accessible paths.
  10. Lighting installed in floors shall not produce heat.
  11. Imperfections or irregularities in the floor surface that imply a level difference of more than 5 mm or holes of more than 15 mm diameter are not allowed. These level
    differences can be generated due to the material selection or because of a lack of maintenance. This especially includes manhole covers grids and grills installed in
    public spaces.
  12. Changes in level of maximum 15 mm should be designed with a 25% maximum gradient slope.
  13. When grate openings are longitudinal, they should have a perpendicular orientation to the pedestrians’ direction of travel.
  14. It is not permissible to install grates on the lower level of the pedestrian crossing
    curb cuts.
  15. Trees adjacent to an accessible path shall be protected with walkable grates, especially when its location is less than 2000 mm to a building façade.
PF2
PF1

PF1

Slip resistance (PTV) comply: level and inclined with ≤5% dry areas indoor – (PTV) Between 15 and 35

PF2

Inclined >5% dry areas indoor, (PTV) ≥35

PF3
PF4
PF4

PF3

Level and inclined with ≤ 5% wet areas and outdoor – (PTV) Between 35 and 45

PF4

Inclined > 5% wet areas and outdoor, (PTV) ≥ 45

PF5
PF5
PF5

PF5

Street pavement, swimming pools and showers, (PTV) ≥45

 

PF6

PF6

Ground pavement without loose elements

PF7

PF7

Rugs and carpets are firmly fixed and do not increase the strength required to roll over a ceramic pavement by ≥25%

PF8
PF8
PF9

PF8

Without rounded edges and excessive joints

PF9

Not producing glare

PF10

PF10

With reflectance contrast of at least 30 points LRV between accessible pavement (surrounding surface or 300mm pavement strip)

PF11

PF11

Lighting in floor (Flooring Light) not produces glare and excessive heat

PF12
PF13

PF12

Absence of utility covers (manhole covers) on the path or with height less of 5mm

PF13

Absence of drain grids on the path or with holes smaller than 5mm

PF14
PF14

PF14

Change of pavement level ≤15mm, with ≤25% gradient slope (chamfered)

PF15

PF15

Longitudinal grate openings with perpendicular orientation to the pedestrians’ direction of travel

PF16

PF16

For distance between tree basin edge and the façade < 1800 mm, tree grate with walkable surface

Glossary of Terms

Tactile pavements are textured surfaces with contrasted colour that are perceptible and identifiable by feel or cane or residual functional vision that warns or informs people with visual disabilities.

Truncated domes in a grid pattern to provide a tactile surface under feet of blind users. They are used as a used as a warning of upcoming level changes or obstacles on the course of travel.

Flat topped elongated bars in the paving surface under feet of blind people. They are used as a directional sign to assist the independent mobility of people with visual disabilities.

Pendulum test value (PTV) is a measurement of the slip resistance of a floor surface, either an external or internal floor of a building. The least slip resistance a surface material is, the more likely people may skid or trip, especially in wet conditions. In average circumstances, slip-resistance is as follows:

0-18 = very low slip-resistance.

18-25 = moderate slip-resistance.

25-36 = good slip resistance.

Light Reflectance Value (LRV) is a numeric scale that is used to identify how much light a colour reflects or absorbs. It is used in universal design to identify the contrast between two colours. This can help to determine if there is sufficient contrast to visually identify a feature such as a fonts on a sign, elevator call button, a handrail and other items which need to be seen by visually impaired people.

A tree grate is a metallic grating installed at the same level with the surrounding surface around a tree that allows the soil or sand underneath to stay uncompacted and the pedestrians to walk near the tree without stepping on the soil or sand

A manhole cover or maintenance hole cover is a removable plate forming the lid over the opening of a manhole, an opening large enough for a person to pass through that is used as an access point for an underground vault or pipe.

Glare can be caused by bright direct or reflected sunlight that can cause discomfort to people or distract them causing a hazard. This is especially important for people with poor visibility.

Tools and Templates

Approaching Buildings
Ramp Design
Car Park Layout

Relevant Guidance

Full Guidance