Stairs

Steps
Steps shall the following characteristics:

  1. Rises shall have a maximum height between 150 mm and 176 mm.
  2. In straight flights, the dimension of the stair tread must be between 300 mm and 34 mm.
  3. The rise R and tread T must meet the following relation: 650 mm < 2R + T < 700mm.
  4. Curved stairs should be avoided.
  5. No open risers or discontinued treads are allowed.
  6. The run of a step is the dimension measured from the edge of the nosing of a tread to the vertical projection of the nosing of the next step.
  7. The projection of a step nosing over the tread below shall be avoided, and if present, it shall be at a maximum of 25 mm.
  8. At least 30 mm from the step edge shall present a reflectance contrast of at least 30 LRV points against the step surface.
  9. In a staircase, all the steps shall have the same height with a tolerance of ± 4 mm.

Stair flights
Each stair flight must meet the following characteristics:

  1. A warning surface as per section 5.3 shall be provided at the beginning and the end of each stair flight.
  2. Each flight shall have between 3 steps and maximum of 12.
  3. The usable width of the flight shall be at least 1200 mm.
  4. The width of stairs should be free of obstacles overhead, particularly the underside of the stairs themselves. The minimum usable width is measured between walls or
    guardrails, without deducting the space occupied by the handrails as long as they do not protrude from the walls or guardrails more than 120 mm.
  5. Illumination at the top and bottom and along of the flight should be, at least 200 lux.

Landings
Each stair landing must meet the following characteristics:

  1. Landings located between stairs flights in the same direction should maintain at least the same stair width and have a minimum length of 1200 mm.
  2. When there is a directional change between two flights, the width of the landing shall not be reduced. This width must be free of obstacles and free from any door
    opening.
  3. All open spaces lower than 2400 mm under a stair shall be protected with a handrail or fixed equivalent element to protect people from the overhead hazard,
LCS1

LCS1

Availability of alternative elevator accompanied with an internal staircase in more than one story building

LCS4
LCS3
LCS2

LCS2

Steps rises between 150 – 175mm

LCS3

Steps stair treads between 300 – 340mm

LCS4

Steps rise (R) and Tread (T) fulfl: 600 mm <2R + T <650mm

LCS6
LCS5

LCS5

No curved stairs

LCS6

No open risers or discontinued treads

LCS7
LCS8

LCS7

Steps with nosing ≤ 25 mm

LCS8

30 mm from the step edge space along the stair fight width shall present a reflectance contrast of 30 LRV

LCS9
LCS10

LCS9

Steps with same height with a ±4mm tolerance

LCS10

Stair fights steps number between 3 and 12

LCS11
LCS13

LCS11

Usable stair fight width ≥1100mm

LCS13

Landing with same width of stair and a length ≥1200 mm

LCS12

LCS12

Illumination at top and bottom of the fight ≥ 200lux

LCS14

LCS14

Empty space with height <2200mm under the stair is protected

Glossary of Terms

A stair riser is the near-vertical element in a set of stairs, forming the space between one step and the next

A stair tread is is commonly defined as simply the flat, horizontal portion of a stair that a person places their foot upon

A stair riser is the vertical space between one step and the next, it can be either open or closed. Stairs are referred to as having ‘open risers’ where treads are separated by a ‘gap’ in the structure of the staircase.

Nosing is the horizontal, protruding edge of a stair’s step where most foot traffic frequently occurs. Making the nosing different colour and contrast to the rest of steps allows the new step to be easily identified to people with visual impairment.

A stair flight is a run of stairs or steps between landings. A staircase or stairway is one or more flights of stairs leading from one floor to another, and includes landings, handrails, balustrades and additional parts.

Light Reflectance Value (LRV) is a numeric scale that is used to identify how much light a colour reflects or absorbs. It is used in universal design to identify the contrast between two colours. This can help to determine if there is sufficient contrast to visually identify a feature such as a fonts on a sign, elevator call button, a handrail and other items which need to be seen by visually impaired people.

Tactile pavements are textured surfaces with contrasted colour that are perceptible and identifiable by feel or cane or residual functional vision that warns or informs people with visual disabilities.

Truncated domes in a grid pattern to provide a tactile surface under feet of blind users. They are used as a used as a warning of upcoming level changes or obstacles on the course of travel.

Pendulum test value (PTV) is a measurement of the slip resistance of a floor surface, either an external or internal floor of a building. The least slip resistance a surface material is, the more likely people may skid or trip, especially in wet conditions. In average circumstances, slip-resistance is as follows:

0-18 = very low slip-resistance.

18-25 = moderate slip-resistance.

25-36 = good slip resistance.

Tools and Templates

Changing Levels

Relevant Guidance