Windows and window hardware
Windows and window hardware shall fulfil the following requirements:

1. Opening windows either in facades, internal or external corridors, shall not project into pedestrian areas below a height of 2200 mm.
2. Pressure mechanisms or levers shall not require wrist turning, and should be easy to manipulate with one hand, elbow or automatically operated.
3. Whenever possible, prioritize natural light and air.
4. In order to provide exterior vision to children people with short stature and
wheelchair users the glazing should be no higher than 900 mm from the floor.
Guardrail protection shall be provided if windows can be opened lower than 1200
mm in order to prevent falls.

Full Guidance



Without projections ≤2200 mm into the pedestrian area


Fixed glazing at maximum of 900mm height


Operable window at 1200mm height


With guardrails if window opening <1200mm



Opening mechanisms not require wrist turning


Glossary of Terms

Kilonewtons (kN/m), is the measurement of pressure or force. In universal design, we use kN/m to measure the pressure resistance of floors, the force needed to open doors or the force used against guardrails.

A strong bar, fence, railing, balustrade or glass constructed as part of building along side a drop or something steep, such as slopes, stairs, balcony edges, external paths or terraces. They are suitably strong to prevent people from tripping or falling off causing harm.

LUX is a unit of illumination equal to the direct illumination on a surface that is everywhere one meter from a uniform point source of one. It is used in universal design to determine if an area is adequately lit by natural daylight or artificial lighting so people with poor vision are able to navigate a space safely.

Pendulum test value (PTV) is a measurement of the slip resistance of a floor surface, either an external or internal floor of a building. The least slip resistance a surface material is, the more likely people may skid or trip, especially in wet conditions. In average circumstances, slip-resistance is as follows:

0-18 = very low slip-resistance.

18-25 = moderate slip-resistance.

25-36 = good slip resistance.

Braille is a system of reading and writing by touch used by the blind. It consists of arrangements of dots which make up letters of the alphabet, numbers, and punctuation marks

Light Reflectance Value (LRV) is a numeric scale that is used to identify how much light a colour reflects or absorbs. It is used in universal design to identify the contrast between two colours. This can help to determine if there is sufficient contrast to visually identify a feature such as a fonts on a sign, elevator call button, a handrail and other items which need to be seen by visually impaired people.

Tools and Templates

Building Entrances
Accessible Rooms

Relevant Guidance